Publications | Journal Papers

Our peer-reviewed articles cover a wide range of topics and appear in journals from many disciplines including basic and social sciences, humanities, and the professions.


Ifekwunigwe, J., Wagner, J., Yu, J., Harrell, T., Bamshad, M., and Royal, C. (2017) A Qualitative Analysis of How Anthropologists Interpret the Race Construct. American Anthropologist 119 (3): 422-434. Abstract

Christensen, K., Uhlmann, W., Roberts, J., Linnenbringer, E., Whitehouse, P., Royal, C., Obisesan, T., Cupples, L., Butson, M., Fasaye, G., Hiraki, S., Chen, C., Siebert, U., Cook-Deegan, R., and Green, R. for the REVEAL Study Group. (2017). A Randomized Controlled Trial of Disclosing Genetic Risk Information for Alzheimer Disease via Telephone. Genetics in Medicine, Advance online publication 13 July 2017. doi:10.1038/gim.2017.103. Abstract

McDonald, M., Creary, M., Powell, J., Daley, L.A., Baker, C., Grant, A., and Royal, C. (2017). Perspectives and Practices of Athletic Trainers and Team Physicians Implementing the 2010 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Sickle Cell Trait Screening Policy. Journal of Genetic Counseling, p1-9. Published online: June 3, 2017. DOI 10.1007/s10897-017-0107-6. Abstract

Treadwell, M., Makani, J., Ohene-Frempong, K., Ofori-Acquah, S., McCurdy, S., deVries, J., Bukini, D., Dennis-Antwi, J., Kengne Kamga, K., Mbekenga, C., Wonkam, E., Tangwa, G., Royal, C., and Wonkam, A. as members of the H3A Consortium. (2017). Stakeholder Perspectives on Public Health Genomics Applications for Sickle Cell Disease: A Methodology for a Human, Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) Qualitative Research Study. OMICS: A Journal of Integrative Biology, 21(6): 323-332. DOI: 10.1089/omi.2017.0047. Abstract

Blanchard, J., Tallbull, G., Wolpert, C., Powell, J., Foster, M., and Royal, C. (2017). Barriers and Strategies Related to Qualitative Research on Genetic Ancestry Testing in Indigenous Communities. Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics, p1-11. Published online: April 23, 2017 DOI:10.1177/1556264617704542. Abstract

Wagner, J., Yu, J-H., Ifekwunigwe, J., Harrell, T., Bamshad, M., and Royal, C. (2017). Anthropologists’ Views on Race, Ancestry, and Genetics. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 162:318-327. DOI:10.1002/ajpa.23120. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 27874171. Abstract


Bonham, V., Callier, S., and Royal, C. (2016). Will Precision Medicine Move Us beyond Race? New England Journal of Medicine, 374(21): 2003-2005. Abstract

Christensen, K., Roberts, J., Whitehouse, P., Royal, C., Obisesan, T., Cupples, L., Vernarelli, J., Bhatt, D., Linnenbringer, E., Butson, M., Fasaye, G., Uhlmann, W., Hiraki, S., Wang, N., Cook-Deegan, R., and Green, R. (2016). Disclosing Pleiotropic Effects during Genetic Risk Assessment for Alzheimer Disease: A Randomized Trial. Annals of Internal Medicine, 164(3):155-163. Abstract

Graves, J.L., Hurtado, M., Reiber, C., Scotchmoor, J., and Thanukos, A., (2016). Evolutionary Science as a Method to Facilitate Higher Level Thinking and Reasoning in Medical Training. Evolution, Medicine, & Public Health, DOI: 10.1093/emph/eow029. Abstract

Ifekwunigwe, Jayne O. (2016). The Difference That Transnational and Intersectional Black Feminisms Make: A Commentary on Tripp. Politics, Groups and Identities, 4(2): 335-340. (January, 2016). Abstract

Mulder, N., Nembaware, V., Adekile, A., Anie, K., Inusa, B., Brown, B., Campbell, A., Chinenere, F., Chunda-Liyoka, C., Derebail, V., Geard, A., Ghedira, K., Hamilton, C., Hanchard, M., Huggins, W., Ibrahim, M., Jupp, S., Kenge Kamga, K., Knight-Madden, J., Lopez-Sall, P., Mbiyavanga, M., Munube, D., Nirenberg, D., Nnodu, O., Ofori-Acquah, S., Ohene-Frempong, K., Opap, K., Panji, S,, Park, M., Pule, G., Royal, C., Sangeda, R., Tayo, B., Treadwell, M., Tshilolo, L., and Wonkam, A. (2016). Proceedings of a Sickle Cell Disease Ontology workshop — Towards the First Comprehensive Ontology for Sickle Cell Disease. Applied and Translational Genomics, DOI: 10.1016/j.atg.2016.03.005. Abstract


Graves, J.L. (2015). Why The Non-Existence of Biological Races, Does Not Mean the Non-Existence of Racism. In: “The Mechanisms of Color-Blind Racism.” Special Issue of American Behavioral Scientist, DOI: 10.1177/0002764215588810. Abstract

Graves, J.L. (2015). Great is Their Sin: Biological Determinism in the Age of Genomics. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, DOI: 10.1177/0002716215586558. Abstract

Green, R., Christensen, K., Cupples, L., Relkin, N., Whitehouse, P., Royal, C., Obisesan, T., Cook-Deegan, R., Linnenbringer, E., Butson, M., Fasaye, G., Levinson, E., and Roberts, J. (2015). REVEAL Study Group. A Randomized No Inferiority Trial of Condensed Protocols for Genetic Risk Disclosure of Alzheimer’s Disease. Alzheimer’s Dement, (10):1222-30. Epub 2014 Dec 9. Abstract

The 1000 Genomes Project Consortium. (2015). A Global Reference for Human Genetic Variation. Nature, 526, 68–74. DOI:10.1038/nature15393. Abstract

Wonkam, A., Makani, J., Ofori-Aquah, S., Nnodu, O., Treadwell, M., Royal, C., and Ohene-Frempong, K. as members of the H3Africa Consortium. (2015). Sickle Cell Disease and H3Africa: Enhancing Genomic Research on Cardiovascular Diseases in African Patients. Cardiovasc J Afr, 26:50–55. Abstract


Graves, J.L. (2014). Response: Developmental Systems and Inequality. Current Anthropology, 55(5): 537-39, 2014. Abstract

Ifekwunigwe, J. O. (2014). “Reframing Senegalese Youth and Clandestine Migration to a Utopian Europe”. Special issue on “Senegal: Between Migrations to Europe and Returns,” ITPCM International Commentary 10 (35): 35-41. Abstract

Peprah, E., Xu, H., Tekola-Ayele, F., and Royal, C. (2014). Genome-wide Association Studies in Africans and African Americans: Expanding the Framework of the Genomics of Human Traits and Disease. Public Health Genomics, 18, 40-51. Abstract

The 1000 Genomes Project Consortium. (2014). Integrating Sequence and Array Data to Create an Improved 1000 Genomes Project Haplotype Reference Panel. Nature Communications, 5, DOI:10.1038/ncomms4934. Abstract


Daley, L., Wagner, J., Himmel, T., McPartland, K., Katsanis, S., Shriver, M., and Royal, C. (2013). Personal DNA Testing In College Classrooms: Perspectives of Students and Professors. Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers, 17(6), 1-7. Abstract

Ifekwunigwe, J. O. (2013). “Voting with Their Feet”: Senegalese Youth, Clandestine Boat Migration and the Gendered Politics of Protest.” Special issue on Migration, Diaspora and Development: Challenges for Africa in the 21st Century. African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal, 6 (2): 218-235. Abstract

The 1000 Genomes Project Consortium. (2013). Integrative Annotation of Variants from 1092 Humans: Application to Cancer Genomics. Science, 4;342(6154): 1235587. Abstract

Wonkam, A., de Vries, J., Royal, C., Ramesar, R., and Angwafo. F. (2013). Would You Terminate A Pregnancy Affected By Sickle Cell Disease? Analysis of Views of Patients in Cameroon. J Med Ethics, DOI:10.1136. Abstract


Jonassaint, C., Ashley-Koch, A., Whitfield, K., Hoyle, R., Richman, L., Siegler, I., Royal, C., and Williams, R. (2012). The Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphism (5HTTLPR) Moderates the Effect of Adolescent Environmental Conditions on Self-Esteem in Young Adulthood: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach. Biological Psychology, 91, 111-119. PMID: 22659377. Abstract

Manswell Butty, J.A., Richardson, F., Mouton, C.P., Royal, C.D., Green, R.D., and Munroe, K.A. (2012). Evaluation Findings from Genetics and Family Health History Community-Based Workshops for African Americans. Journal of Community Genetics. 3(1), 1-12. PMCID: PMC3266965. Abstract

The International HapMap 3 Consortium (2012). An Integrated Map of Genetic Variation from 1,092 Human Genomes. Nature, 1;491(7422):56-65. Abstract

Wagner, J., and Royal, C. (2012). Field of Genes: An Investigation of Sports-Related Genetic Testing. Journal of Personalized Medicine. 2(3), 119-137. Abstract

Wagner, J., Cooper, J., Sterling, R., and Royal, C. (2012). Tilting At Windmills No Longer: A Data-Driven Discussion of DTC DNA Ancestry Tests. Genetics in Medicine. 14(6), 586-593. PMID: 22382803. Abstract


Akinleye, I., Roberts, J.S., Royal, C.D., Linnenbringer, E., Obisesan, T.O., Fasaye, G-A., and Green, R.C. (2011). Differences between African American and White Research Volunteers in Their Attitudes, Beliefs and Knowledge Regarding Genetic Testing for Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of Genetic Counseling. 14(1), 650-659. PMCID: PMC3223287. Abstract

Bailey, G.L., Han, J., Wright, D.C., and Graves, J.L. (2011). Religiously Expressed Fatalism and the Perceived Need for Science and Scientific Process to Empower Agency. Science in Society, 2(3): 55-88. Abstract

Royal, C. (2011). My Genome, My Identity, My Health. Science. 331(6018), 690-691. PMID: 21310996. Abstract

Royal, C., Jonassaint, C., Jonassaint, J., and De Castro, L. (2011). Living With Sickle Cell Disease: Traversing “Race” and Identity. Ethnicity and Health. 16(4-5), 389-404. PMID: 21797725. Abstract

Rusert, B., and Royal, C. (2011). Grassroots Marketing in a Global Era: More Lessons from BiDil. Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics. 39(1), 79-90. PMCID: PMC3172009. Abstract


Darity Jr, W.D., Royal, C., and Whitfield, K. (2010). Race, Genetics and Health: An Introduction. Review of Black Political Economy 37(1), 1-6. Abstract

Jonassaint, C., Jonassaint, J., Stanton, M., De Castro, L., and Royal, C. (2010). Clinical and Sociodemographic Factors Predict Coping Styles Among Adults with Sickle Cell Disease. Journal of the National Medical Association. 102(11), 1045-1049. PMID: 21141293. Abstract

Jonassaint, C.R., Santos, E.R., Glover, C.M., Payne, P.W., Fasaye, G.A., Oji-Njideka, N., Hooker, S., Hernandez, W., Foster, M.W., Kittles, R.A., and Royal, C.D. (2010). Regional Differences in Awareness and Attitudes Regarding Genetic Testing For Disease Risk and Ancestry. Human Genetics. 128, 249-260. PMCID: PMC2940428. Abstract

Royal, C., Novembre, J., Fullerton, S., Goldstein, D., Long, J., Bamshad, M., Clark, A. (2010). Inferring Genetic Ancestry: Opportunities, Challenges, and Implications. American Journal of Human Genetics. 86, 661–673 PMCID: PMC2869013. Abstract

Sirugo, G., Williams, S.M., Royal, C.D., Newport, M.J., Hennig, B.J., Mariani-Costantini. R., Buonaguro, F.M., Velez Edwards, D.R., Ibrahim, M., Soodyall, H., Wonkam, A., Ramesar, R., and Rotimi, C.N. (2010). Report on the 6th African Society of Human Genetics (AfSHG) Meeting, March 12-15, 2009, Yaounde, Cameroon. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 83(2), 226-9. PMCID: PMC2911163. Abstract

The 1000 Genomes Project Consortium. (2010). A Map of Human Genome Variation from Population-Scale Sequencing. Nature 467, 1061–1073. Abstract

The International HapMap 3 Consortium. (2010). Integrating Common and Rare Genetic Variation in Diverse Human Populations. Nature. 467(7311):52-8. PMCID: PMC3173859. Abstract


Graves, J.L. (2009). Biological V. Social Definitions of Race: Implications for Modern Biomedical Research. Review of Black Political Economy, DOI: 10.1007/s12114-009-9053-3. Abstract

Graves, J.L. and Bailey, G.L. (2009). Evolution, Religion, and Race: Critical Thinking and the Public Good. Forum on Public Policy: A Journal of the Oxford Round Table; Abstract

Madhere, S., Harrell, J., and Royal, C. (2009). Social Ecology, Genomics, and African American Health: A Nonlinear Dynamical Perspective. Journal of Black Psychology 35, 154-179. PMCID: PMC2723851. Abstract


Christensen KD, Roberts JS, Royal CD, Fasaye GA, Obisesan T, Cupples LA, WhitehousePJ, Butson MB, Linnenbringer EP, Relkin NR, Farrer LA, Cook-Deegan RM, Green, RC. (2008). Incorporating Ethnicity into Genetic Risk Assessment for Alzheimer’s Disease: The REVEAL Study Experience. Genetics in Medicine. 10, 207-214. PMCID: PMC2483343. Abstract


Baffoe-Bonnie, A., Kittles, R., Gillanders, E., Ou, L., George, A., Robbins, C., Ahaghotu, C., Bennett, J., Boykin, W., Hoke, G., Mason, T., Pettaway, C., Vijayakumar, S., Weinrich, S., Jones, M., Gildea, D., Riedesel, E., Albertus, J., Moses, T., Lockwood, E., Klaric, M., Faruque, M., Royal, C., Trent, J., Berg, K., Collins, F., Furbert-Harris, P., Bailey-Wilson, J., Dunston, G., Powell, I., and Carpten, J. (2007). Genome-Wide Linkage of 77 Families from the African American Hereditary Prostate Cancer Study (AAHPC). The Prostate. 67(1), 22-31. PMID: 17031815. Abstract

Ellison, G.T.H., Tutton, R., Smart, A., Outram, S.M., Ashcroft, R., and Martin, P. (2007). Racial Categories in Medicine: A Failure of Evidence-Based Practice. PLoS Medicine, 4(9), e287. Abstract

Payne, P.W., Royal, C., and Kardia, S.L.R. (2007). Genetic and Social Environment Interactions and Their Impact on Health Policy. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 15, 95-98. PMID: 17766800. Abstract

Payne, P.W., and Royal, C.D. (2007). The Role of Genetic and Sociopolitical Definitions of Race in Clinical Trials. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 15, 100-104. PMID: 17766781. Abstract

Rotimi, C., Leppert, M., Matsuda. I., Zeng, C., Zhang, H., Adebamowo, C., Ajayi, I., Aniagwu, T., Dixon, M., Fukushima, Y., Macer, D., Marshall, P., Nkwodimmah, C., Peiffer, A., Royal, C., Suda, E., Zhao, H., Wang, V.O., and McEwen, J. (2007). Community Engagement and Informed Consent in the International HapMap Project. Community Genetics. 10, 186-198. PMID: 17575464. Abstract

The International HapMap Consortium. (2007b). Genome-Wide Detection and Characterization of Positive Selection in Human Populations. Nature. 449(7164), 913-8. PMCID: PMC2687721. Abstract

The International HapMap Consortium. (2007a). A Second-Generation Human Haplotype Map of Over 3.1 Million SNPs. Nature. 449(7164), 851-61. PMCID: PMC2689609. Abstract


Brezo, J., Royal, C., Ampy, F., and Headings, V. (2006). Ethnic Identity and Diabetes-Type-2 Health Attitudes in Americans of African Ancestry. Ethnicity and Disease. 16, 624-632. PMID: 16937597. Abstract

Foster, M., Royal, C. and Sharp, R. (2006). The Routinisation of Genomics and Genetics: Implications for Ethical Practices. Journal of Medical Ethics. 32(11), 635-8. PMCID: PMC2563298. Abstract

Graves, J.L., and Rose, M.R. (2006). Against Racial Medicine. Patterns of Prejudice. vol. 40 (4-5): 481-493, Sander Gilman editor. Abstract

Outram, S.M., and Ellison, G.T.H. (2006). Anthropological Insights into the Use of Race/Ethnicity to Explore Genetic Determinants of Disparities in Health. Journal of Biosocial Sciences, 38(1), 83-102. Abstract

Outram, S.M., and Ellison, G.T.H. (2006). Improving the Use of Race and Ethnicity in Genetic Research: A Survey of Instructions to Authors in Genetics Journals. Science Editor, 29(3), 78-81. Abstract

Royal, C. (2006). “Race” and Ethnicity in Science, Medicine, and Society. BioSocieties, 1(3), 325-328. Abstract


The International HapMap Consortium. (2005). A Haplotype Map of the Human Genome. Nature 437, 1299-1320. PMCID: PMC1880871. Abstract

Wilson, J.G., Rotimi, C.N., Ekunwe, L., Royal, C.D., Crump, M.E., Wyatt, S.B., Steffes, M.W., Adeyemo, A., Zhou, J., Taylor, H.A., and Jaquish. C. (2005). Study Design for Genetic Analysis in the Jackson Heart Study. Ethnicity and Disease. 15(4 Suppl 6), S6-30-37. PMID: 16317983. Abstract


Ahaghotu, C., Baffoe-Bonnie, A., Kittles, R., Pettaway, C., Powell, I., Royal, C., Wang, H., Vijayakumar, S., Bennett, J., Hoke, G., Mason, T., Bailey-Wilson, J., Boykin, W., Berg, K., Carpten, J., Weinrich, S., Trent, J., Dunston, G., and Collins, F. (2004). Clinical Characteristics of African American Men with Hereditary Prostate Cancer: the AAHPC Study. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases, 7, 165-169. PMID: 15175665. Abstract

Ifekwunigwe, J. O. (2004). “Recasting ‘Black Venus’ in the ‘New’ African Diaspora.” special issue on ‘Representing Migrant Women in Ireland and the E.U.’, Women’s Studies International Forum 27: 397-412. Abstract

Keita, S.O.Y., Kittles, R.A., Royal, C.D.M., Bonney, G.E., Furbert-Harris, P., Dunston, G.M., and Rotimi, C.N. (2004). Conceptualizing Human Variation. Nature Genetics, 36(11), 17-20. PMID: 15507998. Abstract

Royal, C., and Dunston, G. (2004). Changing the Paradigm from “Race” To Human Genome Variation. Nature Genetics, 36(11), 5-7. PMID: 15508004. Abstract

The International HapMap Consortium. (2004). Integrating Ethics and Science in the International HapMap Project. Nature Reviews Genetics, 5, 467-475. PMCID: PMC2271136. Abstract


Dula, A., Royal, C., and Secundy, M. (2003). The Ethical and Social Implications of Exploring African American Genealogies. Developing World Bioethics, 3(2), 133-141. PMID: 14768645. Abstract

The International HapMap Consortium. (2003). The International HapMap Project. Nature 426, 789-796. PMID: 14685227. Abstract


Graves, J.L. (2002). What A Tangled Web He Weaves: Race, Reproductive Strategies, and Rushton’s Life History Theory. Anthropological Theory, Sage Publishers, vol. 2(2): 131-154. Abstract

Ifekwunigwe, J. O. (2002). (An)Other English City: Multi-Ethnicities, (Post)Modern Moments and Strategic Identifications. Special issue on Multicultural and the Right to the City, Ethnicities, 2 (3): 321-348. Abstract

Weinrich, S., Faison-Smith, L., Hudson, J., Royal, C., and Powell, I. (2002). Stability of Self-Reported Family History of Prostate Cancer among African American Men. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 10(1), 39-45. PMID: 12048968. Abstract

Weinrich, S., Royal, C., Pettaway, C, Dunston, G, Faison-Smith, L., Hudson, J., Roberson-Smith, P., Frost, J., Jenkins, J., Brooks, K., and Powell, I. (2002). Interest in Prostate Cancer Susceptibility Testing Among African American Men. Cancer Nursing, 25(1), 28-34. PMID: 11838717. Abstract


Ellison, G., Coker, A., Hebert, J., Sanderson, M., Royal, C., and Weinrich, S. (2001). Psychosocial Stress and Prostate Cancer: A Theoretical Model. Ethnicity and Disease, 11, 484-495. PMID: 11572415. Abstract

Powell, I., Carpten, J., Dunston, G., Kittles, R., Bennett, J., Hoke, G., Pettaway, C., Weinrich, S., Vijayakumar, S., Ahaghotu, C., Boykin, W., Mason, T., Royal, C., Baffoe-Bonnie, A., Bailey-Wilson, J., Trent, J., Berg, K., and Collins, F. (2001). African American Hereditary Prostate Cancer Study: A Model for Genetic Research. Journal of the National Medical Association, 93(4), 120-123. PMCID: PMC2593987. Abstract


Royal, C., Baffoe-Bonnie, A., Kittles, R., Powell, I., Bennett, J., Hoke, G., Pettaway, C., Weinrich, S., Vijayakumar, S., Ahaghotu, C., Mason, T., Johnson, E., Obeikwe, M., Simpson, C., Mejia, R., Boykin, W., Roberson, P., Frost, J., Faison-Smith, L., Meegan, C., Foster, N., Furbert-Harris, P., Carpten, J., Bailey-Wilson, J., Trent, J., Berg, K., Dunston, G., and Collins, F. (2000). Recruitment Experience in the First Phase of the African American Hereditary Prostate Cancer (AAHPC) Study. Annals of Epidemiology, 10(8), 68-77. PMID: 11189095. Abstract

Royal, C., Headings, V., Harrell, J., Ampy, F., and Hall, G. (2000). Coping Strategies in Families of Children with Sickle Cell Disease. Ethnicity and Disease, 10(2), 237-247. PMID: 10892831. Abstract


Ifekwunigwe, J. O. (1998). Borderland Feminisms: Towards the Transgression of Unitary Transnational Feminisms. special issue on Feminisms and Internationalisms, Gender and History, 10(3):553-557. Abstract


Graves, J.L. (1995). Science, Undergraduate Education, and African American Students in the 21st Century. Perspectives 25(2)70-88.

Graves, J.L. and Johnson, A. (1995). The Pseudoscience of Psychometry and the Bell Curve Special Issue: Myth and Realities: African Americans and the Measurement of Human Difference. The Journal of Negro Education vol. 64(3):277-294. Abstract

Royal, C., Headings, V., Molnar, E., and Ampy, F. (1995). Resilience in Siblings of Children with Sickle Cell Disease. Journal of Genetic Counseling, 4(3), 199-217. Abstract


Graves, J.L. (1993). Evolutionary Biology and Human Variation: Biological Determinism and the Mythology of Race. Race Relations Abstracts 18(3):4-34. Sage Publishers.

Other Publications


Graves, J.L. (2005). What We Know and What We Don’t Know: Human Genetic Variation and the Social Construction of Race. For: Is Race Real?, a collection of essays solicited by The Social Science Research Council, edited by Craig Calhoun, President Social Science Research Council, April 6th 2005. Abstract


Love, C. B., Thomson, E. J., and Royal, C.D., compilers. Ethics of Human Subject Experimentation. [Bibliography on the Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine; 1999 Feb. (Current bibliographies in medicine; no. 99-1). 4621 citations from January 1989 through November 1998. Available from the National Institutes of Health.


Headings, V., Royal, C., Uzoma, C., Winter, W., Castro, O., and Calvert, A. (1995). Ethics and Strategies for Optimizing Inclusion in Hemoglobinopathy Risk Screening. Proceedings of the 11th National Neonatal Screening, Corpus Christi, Texas.